Cotton's position was that she should primarily parent and make decisions concerning the children, while the father sought an order that the parents share the same amount of time with them and have an equal voice in their activities.Cotton alleged in court that in the months before the separation, Berry grew increasingly critical and called her foul names in front of their daughters.

"The father is a loving father who has much to offer his daughters.

It is in the best interests of the girls to have significant parenting time with the father." The federal government announced nearly $100,000 in new funding last April to the National Judicial Institute to develop training for judges on gender-based violence, including sexual assault and domestic violence.

Judges learn how to manage high-conflict cases, communicate with agitated people, understand the social context for domestic violence and dispel myths, Kent said.

"What I would say -- having walked out of courtrooms sometimes having hopefully made the right decision -- is that these are probably some of the most complicated cases that we have to decide," she said.

Every federally appointed judge goes through two weeks of mandatory training in their first year, which includes a family law component that covers custody disputes, said Justice Adele Kent, head of the institute and an Alberta judge.

The aim is to give judges skills to decide each case on its individual evidence.None of the allegations against him have been tested in court. Supreme Court justice hearing the case ruled his behaviour did not justify denying him significant time with the children.The girls' mother, Sarah Cotton, alleged during a custody dispute in 2016 that Berry had threatened to blow up their home, had thrown clothing at her and pinned her to a bed. Angela Marie Mac Dougall of Battered Women's Support Services said more training is needed to help judges understand the warning signs of family violence.When he was angry, he drove erratically and didn't always buckle the girls into their car seats properly, she alleged.One morning, Cotton said Berry threw a drink at her.Judges also go through training through their individual courts, which varies from province to province, and the institute offers an additional family law program that judges can take.