Around 1900 Brno, which until 1918 consisted in administrative terms only of the central city area, had a predominantly German-speaking population (63%), as opposed to the suburbs, which were predominantly Czech-speaking.by addition of the Slavic communities of the city's neighborhood.Seats of these rulers and thus "capitals" of these territories were castles and towns of Brno, Olomouc, and Znojmo.

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In December 1805 the Battle of Austerlitz was fought near the city; the battle is also known as the "Battle of the Three Emperors".

Brno itself was not involved with the battle, but the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte spent several nights here at that time and again in 1809.

Included in the German-speaking group were almost all of the 12,000 Jewish inhabitants, including several of the city's better known personalities, who made a substantial contribution to the city's cultural life.

In 1921 Brno became the capital of the Land of Moravia (Czech: země Moravská); before that it was the capital of the Margraviate of Moravia.

After the end of the Thirty Years' War (1648), Brno retained its status as the sole capital.

This was later confirmed by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II in 1782, and again in 1849 by the Moravian constitution.

In the 15th century Brno was besieged in 1428 and again in 1430 by the Hussites during the Hussite Wars. In 1641, in the midst of the Thirty Years' War, the Holy Roman Emperor and Margrave of Moravia Ferdinand III commanded permanent relocation of the diet, court, and the land tables from Olomouc to Brno, as Olomouc's Collegium Nordicum made it one of the primary targets of Swedish armies.

Meanwhile, Brno, as the only Moravian city which under the leadership of Jean-Louis Raduit de Souches managed to defend itself from the Swedes under General Lennart Torstenson, served as the sole capital of the state (Margraviate of Moravia).

Throughout its history, Brno's locals also referred to the town in other languages, including Brünn in German, ברין (Brin) in Yiddish and Bruna in Latin.

The city was also referred to as Brunn ( and Brno became one of the centres of Moravia along with Olomouc and Znojmo.

The Moravian Diet (cz: Moravský Zemský sněm), the Moravian Land Tables (cz: Moravské Zemské desky), and the Moravian Land Court (cz: Moravský Zemský soud) were all seated in both cities at once.