Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia; expanding possessions in Africa; expanding into Germania; and completing the conquest of Hispania.

Mark Antony was amassing political support, but Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the faction supporting Caesar.

Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he initially opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.

Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised.

Octavius only mentions his father's equestrian family briefly in his memoirs.

After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward fa├žade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies.

In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator.

He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen of the State").

The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.

By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor.

It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.

He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.