Although it was not the capital of the Province of Thrace, the city was the largest and most important centre in the province.

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Many of those are still preserved and can be seen by tourists.

Today only a small part of the ancient city has been excavated.

The city is in the southern part of the Plain of Plovdiv, an alluvial plain that forms the western portion of the Upper Thracian Plain.

From there, the peaks of the Sredna Gora mountain range rise to the northwest, the Chirpan Heights to the east, and the Rhodope mountains to the south.. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were seven syenite hills, but one (Markovo tepe) was destroyed.

It remained within the borders of Bulgaria until July of the same year, when it became the capital of the autonomous Ottoman region of Eastern Rumelia.

In 1885, Plovdiv and Eastern Rumelia joined Bulgaria.and objects of everyday life on Nebet Tepe from as early as the Chalcolithicera , showing that at the end of the 4th millennium BCE, there was already an established settlement there which was continuously inhabited since then. Ten years after the Macedonian invasion, the Thracian kings started to exercise power again after the Odrysian Seuthes III had re-established their kingdom under Macedonian suzerainty as a result of a somehow successful revolt against Alexander the Great's rule resulting in a stalemate.In 183 BCE, Philip V of Macedon conquered the city, but shortly after, the Thracians re-conquered it.Numerous nations have left their traces on the twelve-metre-thick (39-foot) cultural layers of the city.The earliest signs of habitation on the territory of Plovdiv date as far back as the 6th millennium BCE.Ammianus Marcellinus wrote in the 4th century CE that the then city had been the old Eumolpias/Eumolpiada, ( of the other as it kept all consonants of the name Philip deva (city).