There are many preserved ruins such as the ancient Plovdiv Roman theatre, a Roman odeon, a Roman aqueduct, the Plovdiv Roman Stadium, the archaeological complex Eirene, and others.

The oldest American educational institution outside the United States, the American College of Sofia, was founded in Plovdiv in 1860 and later moved to Sofia.

and objects of everyday life on Nebet Tepe from as early as the Chalcolithicera , showing that at the end of the 4th millennium BCE, there was already an established settlement there which was continuously inhabited since then. Ten years after the Macedonian invasion, the Thracian kings started to exercise power again after the Odrysian Seuthes III had re-established their kingdom under Macedonian suzerainty as a result of a somehow successful revolt against Alexander the Great's rule resulting in a stalemate.

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Ammianus Marcellinus wrote in the 4th century CE that the then city had been the old Eumolpias/Eumolpiada, ( of the other as it kept all consonants of the name Philip deva (city).

Although the two names sound similar, they may not share the same origin as Odrin and Adrianople do, and Pulpudeva may have predated the other names Plovdiv is located on the banks of the Maritsa river, southeast of the Bulgarian capital Sofia.

The city is in the southern part of the Plain of Plovdiv, an alluvial plain that forms the western portion of the Upper Thracian Plain.

From there, the peaks of the Sredna Gora mountain range rise to the northwest, the Chirpan Heights to the east, and the Rhodope mountains to the south.. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were seven syenite hills, but one (Markovo tepe) was destroyed.

"town of villains") in pejorative relation to the conquest by king Philip II of Macedon who is said to have settled the town with 2,000 men who were false-accusers, sycophants, lawyers, and other possible disreputables., meaning "The Three Hills", and mentioned in the 1st century by Pliny.

At times the name was Ulpia, Flavia, Julia after the Roman families.and subsequently was invaded by Persians, Greeks, Celts, Romans, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Slavs, Rus people, Crusaders, and Turks.On January 4, 1878, Plovdiv was liberated from Ottoman rule by the Russian army.Although it was not the capital of the Province of Thrace, the city was the largest and most important centre in the province.The ancient ruins tell a story of a vibrant, growing city with numerous public buildings, shrines, baths, theatres, a stadium, and the only developed ancient water supply system in Bulgaria. In 179 CE, a second wall was built to encompass Trimontium which had already extended out of the Three hills into the valley.Because of these hills, Plovdiv is often referred to in Bulgaria as "The City of the Seven Hills".